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The Road to Emission-free Driving by Daimler – Part 2 of 5

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High-tech internal combustion engines.
Constant optimization: Internal combustion engines are the mainstay of mobility.

The first of three focal points on Daimler’s “road map” is the optimization of vehicles with internal combustion engine. Constant improvements and new developments are making gasoline and diesel engines not only more powerful, but above all more efficient and cleaner: According to a recent ACEA study, 100 modern vehicles produce less emissions on average than one single automobile from the 1970s. The diesel consumption of heavy-duty vehicles has been reduced by more than one-third.

With BLUETEC, Daimler has been offering clean diesel technol- ogy in commercial vehicles since 2005 and – in an adapted version – also for passenger cars since 2006. As well as reducing pollutant emissions, BLUETEC also cuts fuel consumption by two to five percent; this means up to 2,000 liters less diesel consumption per vehicle and year. This technology also constitutes the basis for compliance with the next stage of Euro 6 emissions legislation; and it is the key to our trucks’ and buses’ compliance with the stringent EPA 10 limits of the NAFTA states and JP 09 in Japan.

In passenger cars too, Daimler is the pioneer of efficiency. The most economical model of the new-generation Mercedes-Benz C-Class is now even more fuel-efficient: The C 220 CDI BlueEFFICIENCY with manual six-speed transmission and standard ECO start / stop function consumes an average of only 4.4 liters of diesel fuel per 100 kilometers – 0.4 liters less than in the past. This is equivalent to 117 grams of CO2 per kilometer. The world’s most fuel-efficient luxury sedan with internal combustion engine, the Mercedes-Benz S 250 CDI BlueEFFICIENCY, offers the highest level of driving comfort and safety, but consumes just 5.7 liters per 100 kilometers.

Gasoline models that are just as economical as diesels – this is made possible by the new generation of BlueDIRECT six- and eight-cylinder engines, which since 2010 have been successively introduced in numerous Mercedes-Benz model series. The power and torque of these engines have been increased over the pre- decessor versions, while consumption has been reduced by up to one-fourth. In terms of fuel economy, the state-of-the-art BlueDIRECT gasoline direct injection engines from Mercedes-Benz have come another step closer to matching the diesel power units.

The targeted BlueEFFICIENCY measures enhance fuel economy – especially with the ECO start / stop function, which is already standard in many vehicles and which Mercedes-Benz will offer in more than 50 models across its entire product range as of mid-2011. In the commercial vehicle sector, too, Daimler is shaping the future of mobility with its highly efficient, clean drive systems: With its “CleanDrive Technologies” for non-pollutant drive systems and alternative fuels, Daimler’s Commercial Vehicle division is shaping the future of mobility.

Already today, more than 500,000 vehicles from all the corporate truck, bus, and van brands are on the move throughout the world with “CleanDrive Technologies.” They illustrate various approaches to the ambitious aim of the zero-emission commercial vehicle. Along with the clean, efficient BLUETEC technology for diesel engines, low-emission and quiet natural gas drive systems are a further option especially in city traffic. Alternative fuels also have the potential to cut emissions and to reduce our dependence on fossil energy sources.

The BlueEFFICIENCy package in all passenger car series.

Daimler is grouping together measures for fuel consumption reduction in gasoline and diesel car models in so-called BlueEFFICIENCY packages, which will be available for 128 Mercedes-Benz passenger car models by the end of 2011. Depending on individual model series, the tailor-made packages comprise various measures within the engine and a combination of numerous technologies for reducing a vehicle’s weight. The BlueEFFICIENCY package also includes low rolling-resistance tires, optimized aerodynamics, and the ECO start-stop function as a preliminary to hybridization.

Optimized gasoline engines.

Performance and agility matched with high fuel economy – this was the objective in the ongoing development of CGI (stratified charged gasoline injection) engines for Mercedes-Benz passenger cars. The CGI process enhances combustion efficiency. The precisely metered quantity of gasoline required in a given driving situation is injected into the cylinders. In May 2010, Mercedes-Benz reached a new milestone in efficiency: Thanks to further innovations such as third-generation direct injection, a fully variable valve train, new combustion processes, and a multi-spark ignition, the new BlueDIRECT V6 and V8 engines consume up to 24 percent less fuel than their predecessors, despite generating greater power and torque. Further savings will be made in future with fuel-efficient stratified combustion processes, reduced friction within the engine, and lower power consumption in the auxiliary units.

In the absolute top segment, the CLS 63 AMG is setting standards with the new AMG V8 biturbo engine. Its key data: 5,461 cc displacement, a maximum output of 386 kW (525 hp) and 700 newton-meters of torque, and fuel consumption of only 9.9 liters per 100 kilometers (NEDC figure) with CO2 emissions of 231 g / km. With these figures, the CLS 63 AMG not only significantly undercuts the values of all its direct competitors, but is also more fuel-efficient than much less powerful vehicles.

Optimized diesel engines.

In Mercedes-Benz passenger cars, the fourth generation of common-rail direct injection (CDI) adapts fuel injection even more precisely to various conditions of load and engine speed. The higher injection pressure increases the engine’s output and, thanks to its superior combustion, reduces raw emissions. The piezo injectors also match the fuel injection to the momentary driving situation. This means lower levels of emission, fuel consumption, and noise. The four-cylinder CDI engine in the Mercedes E-Class develops 150 kW (204 hp) while only consuming 5.3 liters per 100 kilometers. As compared to the predecessor model, this means a 20 percent higher output and 24 percent lower CO2 emissions. The V6 turbodiesel unit, used for example in the Mercedes-Benz C 350 CDI BlueEFFICIENCY, in combination with the 7G-TRONIC PLUS automatic transmission and the ECO start / stop function offers superior output and torque: 195 kW (265 hp) and 620 Nm – with a combined consumption figure of 5.9 liters per 100 kilometers.

The new CDI technology is also used in Daimler’s smallest vehicle: The current smart fortwo cdi has a combined fuel consumption figure of just 3.3 liters per100 kilometers, corresponding to CO2 emissions of only 86 grams per kilometer. This agile city car thus defends its world-leading position as the CO2 champion among vehicles with internal combustion engine.

New Engine Generation stands for the latest interdisciplinary engine development from Daimler Trucks. The Fuso “6R10” engine complies with JP 09, currently the world’s most stringent emissions standard. This powerful engine is being used for the first time in Japan in the Fuso Super Great. All engines of the New Engine Generation (except the EPA 07) include BlueTec emission technology for a significant reduction in the emissions of nitrogen oxides, particulate matter, and CO2 – and are the same time highly economical. The 6R10 for the Fuso Super Great, with a displacement of 12.8 liters and power outputs currently ranging from 257 kW (350 hp) to 338 kW (460 hp), is ideally suited to the customer requirements of the Japanese mar- ket. In future, the New Engine Generation will also power Mercedes- Benz trucks. This already opens the door to maximum-efficiency combustion engines of the next generation, which in conjunction with BlueTec emission technology, exhaust gas recirculation, and a closed-loop diesel particulate filter will meet the Euro 6 standard.


Driving with natural gas: NGT (natural gas technology).

In terms of both ecology and economy, natural gas drive is a viable alternative to conventional drive concepts. In comparison with conventional gasoline or diesel fuels, its advantages lie in a lower carbon content and low-emission combustion. Moreover, natural gas engines run very quietly and produce less CO2 than diesel engines. To date, natural gas vehicles still have the disadvantages of intricate fuel storage in bulky pressure cylinders and a limited filling station infrastructure. Thanks to their bivalent drive units, NGT passenger cars such as the Mercedes-Benz E 200 NGT BlueEFFICIENCY or the B 170 NGT BlueEFFICIENCY can run either on natural gas or on premium gasoline.

The Mercedes-Benz Sprinter NGT BlueEFFICIENCY with bivalent natural gas drive has also been available since 2008. The Mercedes- Benz Citaro CNG is manufactured both as a solo and an articulated bus with natural gas engine; more than 1,600 of these vehicles are already in operation throughout the world. This was the first line-service urban bus with natural gas drive to comply with the EEV (Enhanced Environmentally Friendly Vehicle) exhaust standards. The Mercedes-Benz Econic NGT likewise undercuts the Euro V and EEV limits and is characterized by low noise emissions; around 1,000 of these trucks are on the roads of Europe in municipal service, collecting, and distribution operations. 1,300 natural gas vehicles on the basis of the MT45 walk-in delivery van have been delivered since 2000 by the Freightliner Custom Chassis Corporation (FCCC).


Synthetic fuels help cut consumption and emissions.
The development of fuels goes hand in hand with that of drive systems. New alternative fuels provide further potential for reducing fuel consumption and emissions.

Since conventional fuels such as gasoline or diesel will continue to predominate for a number of years to come, their optimization is a top priority. The objective: universal availability of high-quality and sulfur-free fuels.

1. CNG (compressed natural gas) is a promising option for certain applications, since it has a lower carbon content than gasoline or diesel.

2. BTL (biomass-to-liquid) fuels will acquire increasing significance as soon as they are produced on a large-scale industrial basis. Daimler is promoting the development and application of largely CO2-neutral synthetic biofuels which make optimal use of the biomass, are free of sulfur and aromatics, and do not directly compete with food and fodder production. They can be excellently matched to the requirements of the internal combustionengine.

3. GTL (gas-to-liquid) fuels are the cleanest and highest-quality fuels for diesel engines after BTL fuels. GTL diesel is free of sulfur and can be well matched to the requirements of the internal combustion engine.

4. Hydrogen is the energy medium for fuel cell automobiles. The hydrogen used in the fuel cell reacts with oxygen to yield water. Until now, the world’s hydrogen requirements have been largely fulfilled by the reformation of steam from natural gas. Since this hydrogen production process still gives rise to CO2 emissions as a result of the carbon content of the natural gas, appropriate economically viable processes for hydrogen production from renewable sources must be developed. Hydrogen generated by this means is the fuel of the future, which in combination with the fuel cell ensures mobility free of pollutants and CO2. Environment-friendly hydrogen production processes include electrolysis using electricity generated from renewable sources (at hydroelectric, wind, solar or geothermal power plants) and the gasification of biomass.

5. Biofuelsofthefirstgeneration,suchasbioethanolor biodiesel (rapeseed methyl ester, RME), are suitable for the short to medium term as blend additives for conventional fossil fuels – within the range of concentrations suitable for the respective vehicles – as long as negative consequences for food production are prevented. Hydrotreated vegetable oils (HVO), which give rise to only few emissions and are produced on an industrial scale, are suited as an interim solution prior to the introduction of second-generation biofuels and can be blended with conventional fuels without restric- tion in high quantities.

Hybridization made to measure.
Boosting efficiency. The modular hybrid system is suited to a wide range of applications in passenger cars and commercial vehicles.


Mercedes-Benz S 400 HyBRID: the first production vehicle with a lithium-ion battery.
With the Mercedes-Benz S 400 HYBRID introduced on the market in 2009, Daimler was the first European manufacturer to offer a hybrid passenger car from large-series production. The modular concept, realized in this premium automobile for the first time, shows how hybrid drive configurations can be efficiently realized to meet a wide variety of requirements. The key component is a battery based on lithium-ion technology, which is superior in terms of power output and storage capacity. The second element is the compact hybrid module, which develops 15 kilowatts in the Mercedes-Benz S 400 HYBRID.

The disc-shaped electric motor is conveniently located in the torque converter housing between the engine and the 7G-TRONIC seven-speed automatic transmission. The compact unit also functions as a starter motor and generator. The hybrid module for example includes the ECO start-stop function. During braking, the electric motor functions as a generator and can recuperate kinetic energy. The energy recovered by this means is stored in a new high-voltage lithium-ion battery specially developed for automotive application. The major advantages of the lithium-ion battery over conventional batteries are its higher energy density and more favorable electrical efficiency despite its more compact dimensions and lower weight. The battery has an exceptionally high cycle stability – a service life of at least ten years is attainable under normal conditions of use.

The future of the modular hybrid system is shown by the Mercedes-Benz Vision 500 Plug-in HyBRID. This vehicle’s hybrid module also allows driving in purely electric mode. The more powerful, likewise disc-shaped electric motor differs only slightly from the hybrid module in the Mercedes-Benz S 400 HYBRID and can also be integrated into the 7G-TRONIC housing. This configuration leaves sufficient space for an isolator coupling additionally located between the internal combustion engine and the electric motor: It separates the two drive units in purely electric mode so that the combustion engine can be cut off completely. Moreover, this configuration allows full recuperation without drag loss in the engine. With a certified consumption of only 3.2 liters of gasoline per 100 kilometers and a purely electric operating range of 30 kilometers, the Mercedes-Benz Vision S 500 Plug-in HYBRID offers green technology in a fascinating luxury-category vehicle.


The modular hybrid system

The modular hybrid system, which makes for great versatility in terms of power output and range of applications, reconciles economy with driving pleasure: Hybrid modules and batteries can be combined with various performance data of the economical, high-torque gasoline and diesel engines. Just like the engines, all hybrid modules are compatible with the 7G-TRONIC automatic transmission. On this basis, diverse, highly customer-oriented hybrid drive variants can be realized – up to the full hybrid, which can also operate in purely electrical mode. A further option is the plug-in hybrid, in which the battery can also be recharged from a domestic power socket to increase the “electric” operating range.


With its hybrid modules, Daimler is also setting new standards in the commercial vehicle sector.

In commercial vehicles, too, Daimler is pressing ahead with drasti- cally reducing fuel consumption, CO2 levels, and exhaust emissions. These activities are grouped together in the “Shaping Future Transportation” initiative launched in late 2007. A key role in the quest for the drive system of tomorrow is played by hybrid technolo- gies, which depending on the type of application are expected to bring about savings in diesel consumption of up to one-third.

With the Mercedes-Benz Atego BlueTec Hybrid, we are offering this particularly low-emission technology ex-factory for the first time in Europe. Its compact, lightweight four-cylinder diesel engine with a displacement of 4.8 liters develops an output of 160 kW (218 hp) and a maximum torque of 810 Nm. It also features a water-cooled electric motor, which has a peak output of 44 kW and a maximum torque of 420 Nm and is supplied by lithium-ion batteries with high energy and power ratings.

The electric motor is located behind the combustion engine and clutch, but in front of the transmission. In so-called parallel hybrid mode, the electric motor and combustion engine can power the truck either alone or in tandem. This architecture allows electric starting, regenerative braking, and boosting by the electric motor and optimizes the characteristics of the diesel engine. This not only significantly reduces fuel consumption and exhaust emissions by up to 15 percent, but also makes for less noise emission. Use of the start / stop function during stops at traffic lights reduces fuel consumption, emissions, and noise to zero. The first fifty Atego BlueTec Hybrid trucks were delivered to German customers from the goods distribution sector in early 2011. The Mercedes-Benz Atego BlueTec Hybrid received the “German Sustainability Award” in the category of “Germany’s most sustainable products / services” in 2010 and was voted “Truck of the Year 2011.”.

World leader in hybrid drive systems for commercial vehicles.

Large numbers of buses and trucks of Daimler’s Orion, Freight- liner, and Mitsubishi Fuso brands are already in operation with customers in the United States and Japan. With some 3,200 Orion Hybrid buses on the roads of North America, more than 1,500 Freightliner vehicles, and over 1,100 light trucks and buses from Mitsubishi Fuso, Daimler is world market leader in hybrid drive systems for commercial vehicles. Together with the natural gas-powered Mercedes-Benz trucks, buses, and vans in Europe, the fleet of vehicles delivered by Daimler to its customers already numbers more than 15,500 commercial vehicles with alternative drive concepts in practical operation.

Off to a good start with fleet tests.

Alternative drive technologies from Daimler Trucks and Daimler Buses are now being put to everyday use with customers in further product segments and regions. In North America, most of the 1,500 Freightliner M2 hybrid trucks have already been delivered to customers. Thomas Built Buses is now producing hybrid versions of the company’s legendary school buses. In Japan, the Fuso Aero Star Eco Hybrid is now already the second generation of hybrid buses to be launched on the market. In London, Europe’s largest fleet test with hybrid trucks was already initiated with ten Mitsubishi Fuso Canter Eco Hybrid vehicles in August 2008. The Global Hybrid Center in Kawasaki, Japan, also opened in August 2008, now coordinates the worldwide hybrid activities of Daimler Trucks and is currently developing new systems. The first of a total of 30 Mercedes-Benz diesel hybrid buses have already been in regular everyday service since 2010. This new vehicle concept is already shaping the technological shift towards the zero-emission vehicle.


Daimler is the world’s first automotive manufacturer to develop and, as of 2012, to produce and market its own batteries for automotive application.

Battery and fuel cell.
Daimler is developing state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries – indispensable for the electrification of the drivetrain.
The lithium-ion battery: The heart of all future electric drive systems.

A powerful, safe, and reliable energy storage medium is a crucial element of all electric drive systems. The performance of the entire electrical system on board an automobile is determined to a large extent by the battery, starting with its charging capacity. Daimler is therefore concentrating on developing a powerful traction battery. In addition to fulfilling specific performance criteria, it must have a long service life, not represent a hazard in an accident, and be recyclable. A highly promising prospect is lithium-ion battery technology, which has already proven its worth in hybrid applications. Its advantages lie above all in its compact dimensions in combination with a considerably higher performance in comparison with conventional battery technologies. Further advances will be achieved with the lithium-ion flat cell, which has a higher energy density and even more compact dimensions.

Standardizing lithium-ion technology.

Thanks to its powerful cooling system and intelligent temperature manage- ment, the lithium-ion battery from Daimler constantly operates within the optimum temperature range of between 15 and 35 degrees Celsius. This ensures reliability independent of climatic conditions, along with full efficiency and excellent cold-starting behavior throughout the battery’s service life. Economical production of the lithium-ion battery under conditions of large- series production is essential for widespread automotive application. Daimler is therefore working to secure cell standardization for this battery technology. The objective of this development is standardized, industrialized production of lithium-ion batteries both for hybrid and for fuel cell and purely battery- powered vehicles – series production is to commence in 2012. Daimler benefits in lithium-ion technology from a broad range of expertise accumulated over many years of research work. The group has registered more than 600 patents for battery-powered vehicles over the past 30 years, including more than 230 in the field of lithium-ion technology. With Deutsche Accumotive, Daimler has its own manufacturing facilities for state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries. As of 2012, these power units will be produced on demand for all automotive applications – in hybrid and electric passenger cars and commercial vehicles.

The fuel cell – electromobility with a long operating range.

With their generous operating range and short filling times, fuel cell automobiles are also well suited for long-distance travel since they generate the electricity for powering the vehicle directly on board from hydrogen. In local traffic, they operate just as cleanly as battery-powered vehicles and without harmful emissions. Fuel cells generate electricity in a chemical reaction between hydrogen and oxygen, which yields only pure water vapor. Daimler has been investigating the use of fuel cell technology to power road vehicles since 1994. The Group’s pioneering achievements are underscored by 180 patent applications in this field of technology. In the course of broad-based practical trials with fuel cell vehicles, a total of 100 passenger cars, buses, and vans have been on the move in everyday use with customers, during which time they have already covered more than 4.5 million kilometers and provided important insights for the ongoing development of the emission-free drivetrain. This provided the basis for manufacture of the first series-produced fuel cell vehicle, the Mercedes-Benz B-Class F-CELL, as of late 2009.

The energy storage medium is the key to electrification of the drivetrain.
To secure its pioneering role over the long term, Daimler acquired a 49.9 percent share in the Evonik subsidiary Li-Tec in 2008. The joint venture “Deutsche Accumotive GmbH & Co. KG” was also established, in which Daimler holds a 90 percent share. The aim of this cooperation is the development and production of lithium-ion batteries specifically designed for use on board road vehicles. As of 2012, Daimler will thus have at its disposal exclusive production capacities for advanced lithium-ion batteries, which can then be manufactured according to requirements for all automotive applications – from hybrid to electric automobiles, and for both passenger cars and commercial vehicles. Daimler thus has direct access to the key technology for emission-free driving.


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Source [Daimler]

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